Thursday, May 21, 2020

The BP Oil Spill and Leadership Issues - 3870 Words

The BP Oil Spill An Introductory Background - One of the most controversial ecological disasters in recent history focused on multinational British Petroleum and their Gulf of Mexico Operations. The Deepwater Oil Disaster began on April 20, 2010 with an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon Oil platform, killing 11, injuring 17. It was not until July 15th, however, that the leak was stopped by capping the wellhead, after releasing almost 5 million barrels (206 million gallons) of crude oil, or 53,000 barrels per day into the Gulf of Mexico. It was not until September 19th that the relief well process was complete and the U.S. Government, EPA, and Coast Guard agencies declared the well breach effectively stopped (Cavnar, 2010). The damage caused by the spill is almost immeasurable; ecological, political, economic, social it almost devastated the U.S. Gulf Coast fishing and tourism industries. Even in January 2011 a report was made by oil-spill experts from the University of Georgia stati ng that tar balls continue to wash up on beaches, collect in shrimp nets, kill marsh grass, and even undegraded oil in the seabed (Dykes, 2011). It will likely be years, if not decades, before the final assessment of damage, short-term and long-term, is accurately noted from this disaster. Part 1 - Ethical Dilemmas- The accident elicited many feelings anger, disillusionment, disgust, and even employees feeling like they were let down because BP had not backed up its values promised toShow MoreRelatedThe Leadership Style of Successful Leaders1019 Words   |  4 Pagessuccessful leader constantly adjusts his or her leadership style to suit the prevailing circumstances. Hence the leadership style adopted at any given time should ideally be dependent on the situation. This is the gist of situational leadership. In this report, I highlight the dominant leadership style in BP, one of the worlds largest oil and gas companies. The Selected Leader and his Leadership Style According to Yahoo Finance (2012, n.p.), BP p.l.c. provides fuel for transportation, energyRead MoreDear Ceo And Board Of Trustees Essay1289 Words   |  6 PagesKaren Cyphers Organizational Leadership Professor Poore November 19, 2016 â€Æ' CEO Paper November 23, 2016 Dear CEO and Board of Trustees Introduction As you are aware, on April 20, 2010, explosions occurred in the Gulf of Mexico sinking the Deepwater Horizon oil rig and tragically killed 11 people This oil spill is now considered the worst oil spill in United States history. During the search and rescue, an underwater camera was discovered which revealed a leak in the BP pipeline. Because the wellRead MoreThe Hurricane Katrina Disaster And The Bp Oil Spill Tragedy941 Words   |  4 Pagesethical behavior in high-profile events, as well as examining various regulatory and sustainability market approaches to business environmental responsibilities. The paper focuses on two major occurrences; the Hurricane Katrina disaster and the BP oil spill tragedy. Hurricane Katrina entered into records as one of the worst disasters ever to hit the US, the storm is considered as the most disastrous and damaging in the US history in 2005. Well over 1800 peopleRead MoreThe Analysis Of The Deepwater Horizon Study Group1365 Words   |  6 PagesBP leadership along with partners did not have proper governance and process to evaluate the risk that they are willing to take. The employee at every level does not know how much risk to take nor did any corporate policy exist to guide them. Having zero risk tolerance and zero safety defects in these complex operations ensure there are no human losses. The analysis of the Deepwater Horizon Study Group (2011) (p.11) shows that the leadership was concerned about how much money was spent in excessRead MorePetroleum And Natural Gas Exploration Essay1701 Words   |  7 PagesSummary April 20, 2010 was the beginning of the end for British Petroleum. BP was started in 1901 by William Knox D’Arcy. Their mission is to operate oil and natural gas exploration, while marketing and distributing all over the globe. The primary issues the company faces are rebuilding their business after the tragic oil spill, their low oil prices and internal leadership promotions. Following the 2010 oil spill, all of BP’s top executives were fired, and the company has continued to promoteRead MoreFshore Oil Drilling Job1229 Words   |  5 Pagesemotional expression and information† (p. 299). The offshore oil-drilling job is complex and needs engineering expertise. BP had undertaken deep-water oil drilling at the Macondo well using the Transocean offshore oil rig. It is expected that BP and its partner, Halliburton, Transocean needed detailed collaborative communication plan across between all the parties. Let us examine some of the critical communication b efore the disaster. BP engineer communicating that, the cement job went well and furtherRead MoreBp Management, Ethical And Social Behavior1114 Words   |  5 Pagesworkers and releasing oil from the well into an ocean. This paper will discuss BP management, ethical and social behavior. BP along with a few of its partners Transocean and Halliburton was involved in the gulf oil spill. The explosion of the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon was the root cause of the oil spill. This paper will focus on BP organization behavioral issues that caused the economic, environmental, and human losses. The research further focuses on what BP leadership could have done as a precautionaryRead MoreEthical Theories That We Have Taught Are Deontological Ethics And Utilitarianism1163 Words   |  5 Pagesethical actions, which are the oil spill and the attempts to cleaning to determine morality. It didn’t have no intentions for the perforation platform to explode and cause the oil well to erupti on and once the consequences are irrelevant, the action would not be considered immoral. Also, It would not be considered moral because it didn’t have any good or ethical intention to the action. Kant’s theory probably would not classify this part of the article, the leadership of BP’s in clean-up attempts wouldRead MoreAn Audit Of Beyond Petroleum s Ethical Practices1500 Words   |  6 Pagesrecommendations of what could be done to rectify the issues identified. Introduction Beyond Petroleum (BP) is one of the world’s largest energy industries, ‘operating in all activities which are connected with the oil and gas industry’. This includes ‘exploring, producing, refining, distributing and marketing of these products to a global market’. BP operates in over 80 countries with over 83,000 employees, producing 3.2 million barrels of oil daily and an economic value of $403.3 billion (6). AccordingRead MoreEthics Report And Recommendations For Bp1497 Words   |  6 PagesEthics Report and Recommendations for BP Executive Summary The focus of this report will be to perform an audit of Beyond Petroleum’s ethical practices. This report will identify three main breaches of ethics, explain why they are unethical and make recommendations of what could be done to rectify the issues identified. Introduction Beyond Petroleum (BP) is one of the world’s largest energy industries, involved in all activities which are associated with the oil and gas industry. This includes â€Å"exploring

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal - 996 Words

Jonathan Swift, 18th century writer and political activist, published â€Å"A Modest Proposal† in 1729 in the midst of turmoil in his home country of Ireland. Under British rule Irish citizens were left destitute and neglected, giving Swift the inspiration for â€Å"A Modest Proposal†. Jonathan Swift’s use of Aristotle s modes of persuasion and straight-faced satire broke Ireland s silence, calling out affluent members of British society and religious hierarchy alike, creating one of the most influential pieces of political satireism to this day. Greek philosopher, Aristotle, created the modes of persuasion to show how one can effectively persuade the appeal of an audience. Jonathan Swift uses these modes to begin an empirically sound proposal. Swift starts the essay stating the deplorable state to which the great Irish city of Dublin had fallen. The first lines alone, â€Å"It is a melancholy object to those, who walk through this great town, or travel in the country, when they see the streets, the roads and cabin-doors crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by three, four, or six children, all in rags, and importuning every passenger for an alms.†, begets an emotional rend in the reader, stabbing at one s humanity while looking upon such grievances. Swift then states the intent of his writing, still grasping the reader’s emotion, with simple and agreeable logistics, that a political solution must be enacted in a â€Å"fair, cheap, and easy† fashion, and that whomever couldShow MoreRelatedJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal971 Words   |  4 PagesJonathan Swift is a well known writer who wrote Gulliver s Travels and many more lesser known works. A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift can be used to argue many things. The work itself is a pamphlet to that explains how one could go about the famine in Ireland. He sugges ts by his title that this will not be a over the top or extreme suggestion instead being modest and understandable. The most notable part of his work however is the obscenity of it as he describes in detail what the benefitsRead MoreJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal1008 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to Sparknotes, In the 1700’s, Ireland went through an economic depression as well as other problems in the country such as starvation, overpopulation and intolerable taxation by England. The families in Ireland could not afford to maintain their children therefore the children became a burden. Politicians did nothing to improve Ireland’s situation. These ongoing Problems in Ireland led Jonathan Swift to write,† A Modest Proposal.† In his essay, Swift uses satire to give rational but extremeRead MoreJonathan Swift s Modest Proposal1562 Words   |  7 PagesEmpire. Thesis: Jonathan Swift s Modest Proposal is the most effective in conveying its proposal against Imperialism as a universal theme. Directional Statement: Jonathan Swift s Modest Proposal successfully uses evidence to support its proposal and an effective style of writing. It also presents a clearly defined problem and solution compared to George Orwell s â€Å"Shooting an Elephant† and Thomas Jefferson s â€Å"Declaration of Independence†. Point 1: Swift s Modest Proposal effectively usesRead MoreAnalysis Of Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal956 Words   |  4 Pagesissue for the Irish and became a topic of satire ridicule for writers. Specifically, Jonathan Swift demonstrates mockery of this time in one of his written works, â€Å"A Modest Proposal.† The speaker proposes to shift the issues of over population and poverty to a business like mentality by paying woman to bare children and then after a year, gaining a profit by selling and eat their children. The speaker’s proposal to consume the children of Ireland demonstrates a satirical solution to the Irish’s economicRead MoreJonathan Swift s Modest Proposal850 Words   |  4 PagesJonathon Swift â€Å"Modest Proposal† is shocking satire that is supposed to bring to light the ill state of the Irish nation during the time period. Swift was making a point that the state that Ireland was in a major economic crisis and was overpopulated and was in a dire need of a solution, so he propose one. But even though this was written many years ago we can still draw inspiration form it today. The essay begins as a Proposal for a solution to the extreme poverty and over population of IrelandRead MoreJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal1809 Words   |  8 PagesJonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal is a satirical essay that sardonically uses an outrageous solution to the massive poverty in Ireland. He proposes this lengthy idea of eating children as the solution to the society’s problems. His serious yet hyperbolic and satirical style allows Swift an approach to get people engaged in the difficulties the Irish had to do to survive their everyday life. This essay explores Swift’s ability to use literary devices and how these techniques advance his idea aboutRead MoreJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal1456 Words   |  6 PagesJonathan Swift was an Irish poet and satirist of the eighteenth century. Although the son of Englishmen, Swift was born and raised in Ireland. While living in Ireland, he witnessed the death of thousands of Irish due to starvation whic h was caused due to crop failure. Swift, who wasn’t even personally affected by the issue, acknowledged that the death of the Irish population which he argues was caused because of the neglect of English landowners. Instead of allowing for the issue to continue to beRead MoreJonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal1859 Words   |  8 Pagessuperiority (Holmes). The satirical literary device was at its peak during the Neoclassical Period in which the enlightenment writer, Jonathan Swift, was exceptional at this writing style (Jokinen). He excelled at rebuking Britain’s flaws and pointed out the hypocrisy at the time by extensive ridicule of the conventual school of thought. Jonathan Swift’s, A Modest Proposal is an inspiration to many aspiring satirical authors, as he is admired as a rhetorical virtuoso that shed light on the profuse moralRead MoreAnalysis of Jonathan Swift ´s A Modest Proposal Essay532 Words   |  3 Pagesdone, the issue hasn’t been fazed a bit. From Jonathan Swift’s Modest Proposal, he clarifies the poverty issued throughout Ireland in the early 1700’s and how one suggestion could change it all. Elaborated from the Literary Reference Center, â€Å"A Modest Proposal, like Gulliver’s Travels, transcends the political, social, and economic crisis that gave birth to it, woeful as they were. Packed with irony and satirical revelations of the human condition†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Swift wasn’t just writing a masterpiece, but an intendedRead MoreCollectivism Vs. Individualism : The Unknown Citizen And Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal1783 Words   |  8 Pagespolitically, with emphasis on the role a person takes in society, or philosophically- what makes a person think collectively or individually. Even though one might say that both theories are important, both W.H. Auden s The Unknown Citizen and Jonathan Swift s A Modest Proposal reflect criticisms of collectivism and promotes individualism. There are two main types of collectivism: â€Å"horizontal collectivism† and â€Å"vertical collectivism†. Collectivism has been characterized as horizontal collectivism

Management Accounting Research Free Essays

Management accounting research has thrived producing substantive findings relevant to industry, but its’ application in practice is questionable. The requirements for management accountants have changed over the years in terms of the roles, skills and knowledge base required. Thus, arguably, industries should look at greater continued participation into higher education. We will write a custom essay sample on Management Accounting Research or any similar topic only for you Order Now Management accounting research has gone beyond the traditional costing for large industries. Traditional management accounting roles have been reformed and/or faded away. Burns et al argued that the new reformed roles of management accountants necessitate new education and training. Considering the changes/emergence and popularity of new occupational management accounting roles including business analysts, strategic management accountants and management controllers, less prominence should be placed on traditional learning methods but more on ‘case studies, practical projects and group research assignments’ (Scapens 1999). If such changes are to be implemented, large challenges lie ahead including cost constraints. Burns et al (2004) looked at management accounting research exploring the changes in terms of the expansion of topics, methods and problems making comparisons with the changes in management accounting practices. Burns et al (2004) also examined the skills and knowledge requirements by management accountants and how these aspects may also require a reform in education and management accounting curriculum. Burns and Yazdifar (2001) asked UK qualified management accountants to highlight the ten most perceived management accounting important tasks, tools and techniques of 1995-00 and 2000-05. They founded that both sets of results, management accountants placed emphasis on traditional management accounting roles such as performance evaluation, budget planning and management, management accounts interpretation and presentation, cost and financial control. It was founded that management accountants perceived budgets as the most important task also highly ranking variance analysis in the late nineteenth century. Nevertheless, numerous new areas such as ABC, balanced scorecard were attributed as low significance. They also founded the expected importance of future tasks considerably changed with more emphasis being placed on newer tasks particularly in strategic planning and implementation, valued-added identification and implementation, new information system implementation, operational information interpretation. It was also founded that despite budgets and variance analysis being highly rated in the 21st century, more importance was placed on ABC, balanced scorecards. Thus, future years have more emphasis on ‘strategy-aligned analysis’ and less emphasis on ‘cost control and cutting’. Identifying the requirements of management accounting practitioners can enable researchers to place more emphasis on such requirements during investigations in order to maintain its currency with practitioners. Burns et al (2001) questioned the reasons for changes in management accounting modelling the tasks as well as roles of management accountants. Consequently, they asked UK qualified management accountants to highlight what they considered to be vitally important contributions to change in management accounting. They founded that information technological advances including accountancy software advances and organisational restructuring as well as the new styles of modern management to be a vital contribution in driving change in the tasks and roles of management accountants. However, Scapens et al (2003) founded that customer orientated initiatives and globalisation were the two fundamental drivers for change. Johnson and Kaplan (1987) argued the existence of a ‘relevance gap’ between management accounting research and practice. They based their argument on fact that companies had one information system and external financial reporting statutory requirements would take preference over the information required by internal management accountants. Burns et al founded modern technological advances including database capabilities enabled the storage of vast amounts of information which can be analysed in various ways meeting the needs of a number of users. Thus, managers can easily access variances and performances. Modern technology has contributed to the change of management accounting roles. Fundamental advances in management operations and productions such as just-in-time have challenged previous methods such as Ford’s mass production. Manufacturing automation has resulted in increased the relation of fixed costs to variable (Bromwich and Bhimani, 1994). New forms of competitiveness such as customer service, differentiation and innovation of products, quality. Hence, more importance is placed on the monitoring of crucial non-financial variables. Scapens et al (1996) argued that managers not necessarily management accountants have the necessary technology, access of data and in numerous cases the necessary skills to be their own ‘pseudo’ accountants. Burns et al (2001) founded that globalisation, customer focus and new forms of competitiveness have affected the roles of management accountants. There has been increased global competition, market volatility and shorter product life cycles contributing to the reform of management accounting roles. There has also been an increased focus on overheads as they now contribute to a substantial proportion of business costs. Consequently, there is increased focus on investigating the value added by overhead processes. Nevertheless, the analysis of overheads is a weak section of traditional management accounting. Considering the emphasis placed on traditional methods, it is questionable whether modern management accounting research is gaining recognition by practitioners despite such research anticipating changes in modern day. Burns et al (2001) argued to the contrary of Johnson and Kaplan stating that a relevance gap does not exist. They argued that management accounting research has highlighted issues concerning management accounting change. Practice frequently searches for a quick fix to problems failing to address fundamental issues. Practitioners and professional sponsors fail to appreciate modern important investigations and management accounting research often seeking solutions to problems using traditional methods. Arguably, the problem does not lie in management accounting research which has accommodated changes but the way in which it is taught and generally accepted. It’s a shame that new management accounting solutions are not thoroughly researched independently in the way new medicines are. Researchers have acknowledged the requirements of incorporating social science theories, other social and economic elements into accounting in order to expand practice effectively. This was seen with the development of a ‘reward and control systems deriving from micro-economics, in particular agency theory, and social psychology’ (Merchant, 1998). However, professional textbooks do not mention such investigations and the way in which research communicated is questionable to the sustainability of the subject. It is argued that professional bodies place more emphasis on the examination and training of traditional management accounting methods. Thus, practitioners are denied access to vital knowledge relevant to their tasks. Arguably, if practitioners do not possess adequate grasp of knowledge based on modern research and theory, they are more likely to accept new methods with questionable validity only to find limitations following implementation. Burns et al founded a growth in international management accounting researchers in the last 30 years despite it being dominated by the West. Thus, management accounting research is now dealing with new issues such as culture and ethnicity (Harrison and McKinnon, 1999), diverse political system regulation and governance (Puxty et al 1987), dispersion of accounting knowledge internationally (Jones and Dugdale, 2002). Arguably, management accounting research is now broader and more flexible accommodating cultural variations. Management accounting research is now anticipating challenges encountered by practitioners. This includes areas such as ‘contingent system design, motivations and rewards, environmental scanning and strategy, and non financial aspects of control’ (Burns et al 2004, pg. 16). However, it is questionable the level of emphasis placed on new methods anticipating changes in the real world and still the majority of contributions come from traditional methods which have been thoroughly tried and tested. Thus, considering the changes occurring in management accounting research and practice, practitioners need to adopt a cumulative continuous learning approach to update ones knowledge. Langfield-Smith (1997) founded that traditional methods in management accounting have become more automated as supposed to disappearing supporting the findings of Burns et al. They stated that increased and changed forms of competition, combined with technological advances, have resulted in flexibility and flatter organisations reforming the roles of management accountants. Despite Burns et al concluding that researchers are accommodating the changing roles and requirements of practitioners, their research findings can be criticised by the findings of Lawal (2002). Lawal (2002) founded that academics and practitioners have different opinions of the important topics ought to be taught. Lawal (2002) founded that academics highly valued budgets, organisational behaviours and IT in comparison to practitioners. Lawal (2002) also founded that academics placed less importance on skills required by practitioners such as time-management, negotiation and team-working. She also founded little innovative and participative teaching methods for example videos, field studies and outside business speakers. Thus, Lawal (2002) argued a reform in teaching methods to incorporate case studies, real-life projects, group work and presentations and increased involvement by practitioners in teaching, in-depth research projects. This would arguably help management accounting research maintain its’ currency with practitioners. New managements accounting researches, proposals and methods are criticised by practitioners often highlighting various inadequacies and limitations. Thus, many new proposals are discarded questioning whether management accounting research is maintaining its currency with practitioners. When evaluating new systems, practitioners often fail to refer to academic research findings on the potential obstacles and/or effectiveness. It is questionable as to whether management accounting research has been successful considering its little practical impact. This is vastly to do with the training and education which has excluded modern researches. Arguably, there have been poor mechanisms and incentives for turning research findings into suitable techniques and policies as well as incorporating such findings into teaching programmes as the roles and skills of management accountant’s change. Observations have found that professional accounting courses including many bodies emphasise on facts and methods abandoning fundamental theory and new research. Consequently, practitioners are sceptical of research having unrealistic expectations attempting to find quick and easy explanations/solutions to difficult problems. Practitioners do not obtain sufficient research skills from professional training. Burns et al (2004) founded that academics and practicing management accountants have different career paths obstructing shared interaction as well as understanding. Academics progression is based on research accomplishments as supposed to professional involvements. Thus, academics place less emphasis on practitioner focussed research considering the little benefit to them. The issues relating to management accounting research maintaining its currency with practitioners lie in the communication. A method needs to be adopted whereby the two are closely interrelated. The research by Burns et al (2004) has helped provide an insight into the changing roles and skills required of management accountants as well as the changes that have occurred in management accounting research. Such research by Burns et al is vital in understanding the reasons for changes in practitioner roles as well as requirements in order for management accounting research to maintain its currency with the practitioners. Arguably, research has kept up with times to accommodate changing requirements of management accountants. However, its application in practice is questionable and whether management accounting research is actually maintaining it’s currency with practitioners. Thus, methods should be adopted whereby research is accompanied with supporting evidence involving tried and tested methods. Suitable mechanisms and incentives for turning research findings into suitable techniques and policies should be developed and incorporated into teaching programmes. Management accountants are part of professional bodies that can incorporate new developments to the area in teaching. Professional bodies often release publications and this method should be used to communicate new management accounting research theories and findings that can be successful in practice. New management accounting research and theories are available on the internet but it is questionable whether such findings are actually used. Thus, practitioners should be encouraged to read upon new publications of management accounting research. Considering research is constantly developing with roles of management accountants changing, there should be increased publications by professional bodies for members in order for research to maintain its currency with practitioners. Management accounting research is crucial to the healthy development of management accounting and maintaining its’ currency with practitioners. How to cite Management Accounting Research, Essays Management Accounting Research Free Essays Management accounting research has thrived producing substantive findings relevant to industry, but its’ application in practice is questionable. The requirements for management accountants have changed over the years in terms of the roles, skills and knowledge base required. Thus, arguably, industries should look at greater continued participation into higher education. We will write a custom essay sample on Management Accounting Research or any similar topic only for you Order Now Management accounting research has gone beyond the traditional costing for large industries. Traditional management accounting roles have been reformed and/or faded away. Burns et al argued that the new reformed roles of management accountants necessitate new education and training. Considering the changes/emergence and popularity of new occupational management accounting roles including business analysts, strategic management accountants and management controllers, less prominence should be placed on traditional learning methods but more on ‘case studies, practical projects and group research assignments’ (Scapens 1999). If such changes are to be implemented, large challenges lie ahead including cost constraints. Burns et al (2004) looked at management accounting research exploring the changes in terms of the expansion of topics, methods and problems making comparisons with the changes in management accounting practices. Burns et al (2004) also examined the skills and knowledge requirements by management accountants and how these aspects may also require a reform in education and management accounting curriculum. Burns and Yazdifar (2001) asked UK qualified management accountants to highlight the ten most perceived management accounting important tasks, tools and techniques of 1995-00 and 2000-05. They founded that both sets of results, management accountants placed emphasis on traditional management accounting roles such as performance evaluation, budget planning and management, management accounts interpretation and presentation, cost and financial control. It was founded that management accountants perceived budgets as the most important task also highly ranking variance analysis in the late nineteenth century. Nevertheless, numerous new areas such as ABC, balanced scorecard were attributed as low significance. They also founded the expected importance of future tasks considerably changed with more emphasis being placed on newer tasks particularly in strategic planning and implementation, valued-added identification and implementation, new information system implementation, operational information interpretation. It was also founded that despite budgets and variance analysis being highly rated in the 21st century, more importance was placed on ABC, balanced scorecards. Thus, future years have more emphasis on ‘strategy-aligned analysis’ and less emphasis on ‘cost control and cutting’. Identifying the requirements of management accounting practitioners can enable researchers to place more emphasis on such requirements during investigations in order to maintain its currency with practitioners. Burns et al (2001) questioned the reasons for changes in management accounting modelling the tasks as well as roles of management accountants. Consequently, they asked UK qualified management accountants to highlight what they considered to be vitally important contributions to change in management accounting. They founded that information technological advances including accountancy software advances and organisational restructuring as well as the new styles of modern management to be a vital contribution in driving change in the tasks and roles of management accountants. However, Scapens et al (2003) founded that customer orientated initiatives and globalisation were the two fundamental drivers for change. Johnson and Kaplan (1987) argued the existence of a ‘relevance gap’ between management accounting research and practice. They based their argument on fact that companies had one information system and external financial reporting statutory requirements would take preference over the information required by internal management accountants. Burns et al founded modern technological advances including database capabilities enabled the storage of vast amounts of information which can be analysed in various ways meeting the needs of a number of users. Thus, managers can easily access variances and performances. Modern technology has contributed to the change of management accounting roles. Fundamental advances in management operations and productions such as just-in-time have challenged previous methods such as Ford’s mass production. Manufacturing automation has resulted in increased the relation of fixed costs to variable (Bromwich and Bhimani, 1994). New forms of competitiveness such as customer service, differentiation and innovation of products, quality. Hence, more importance is placed on the monitoring of crucial non-financial variables. Scapens et al (1996) argued that managers not necessarily management accountants have the necessary technology, access of data and in numerous cases the necessary skills to be their own ‘pseudo’ accountants. Burns et al (2001) founded that globalisation, customer focus and new forms of competitiveness have affected the roles of management accountants. There has been increased global competition, market volatility and shorter product life cycles contributing to the reform of management accounting roles. There has also been an increased focus on overheads as they now contribute to a substantial proportion of business costs. Consequently, there is increased focus on investigating the value added by overhead processes. Nevertheless, the analysis of overheads is a weak section of traditional management accounting. Considering the emphasis placed on traditional methods, it is questionable whether modern management accounting research is gaining recognition by practitioners despite such research anticipating changes in modern day. Burns et al (2001) argued to the contrary of Johnson and Kaplan stating that a relevance gap does not exist. They argued that management accounting research has highlighted issues concerning management accounting change. Practice frequently searches for a quick fix to problems failing to address fundamental issues. Practitioners and professional sponsors fail to appreciate modern important investigations and management accounting research often seeking solutions to problems using traditional methods. Arguably, the problem does not lie in management accounting research which has accommodated changes but the way in which it is taught and generally accepted. It’s a shame that new management accounting solutions are not thoroughly researched independently in the way new medicines are. Researchers have acknowledged the requirements of incorporating social science theories, other social and economic elements into accounting in order to expand practice effectively. This was seen with the development of a ‘reward and control systems deriving from micro-economics, in particular agency theory, and social psychology’ (Merchant, 1998). However, professional textbooks do not mention such investigations and the way in which research communicated is questionable to the sustainability of the subject. It is argued that professional bodies place more emphasis on the examination and training of traditional management accounting methods. Thus, practitioners are denied access to vital knowledge relevant to their tasks. Arguably, if practitioners do not possess adequate grasp of knowledge based on modern research and theory, they are more likely to accept new methods with questionable validity only to find limitations following implementation. Burns et al founded a growth in international management accounting researchers in the last 30 years despite it being dominated by the West. Thus, management accounting research is now dealing with new issues such as culture and ethnicity (Harrison and McKinnon, 1999), diverse political system regulation and governance (Puxty et al 1987), dispersion of accounting knowledge internationally (Jones and Dugdale, 2002). Arguably, management accounting research is now broader and more flexible accommodating cultural variations. Management accounting research is now anticipating challenges encountered by practitioners. This includes areas such as ‘contingent system design, motivations and rewards, environmental scanning and strategy, and non financial aspects of control’ (Burns et al 2004, pg. 16). However, it is questionable the level of emphasis placed on new methods anticipating changes in the real world and still the majority of contributions come from traditional methods which have been thoroughly tried and tested. Thus, considering the changes occurring in management accounting research and practice, practitioners need to adopt a cumulative continuous learning approach to update ones knowledge. Langfield-Smith (1997) founded that traditional methods in management accounting have become more automated as supposed to disappearing supporting the findings of Burns et al. They stated that increased and changed forms of competition, combined with technological advances, have resulted in flexibility and flatter organisations reforming the roles of management accountants. Despite Burns et al concluding that researchers are accommodating the changing roles and requirements of practitioners, their research findings can be criticised by the findings of Lawal (2002). Lawal (2002) founded that academics and practitioners have different opinions of the important topics ought to be taught. Lawal (2002) founded that academics highly valued budgets, organisational behaviours and IT in comparison to practitioners. Lawal (2002) also founded that academics placed less importance on skills required by practitioners such as time-management, negotiation and team-working. She also founded little innovative and participative teaching methods for example videos, field studies and outside business speakers. Thus, Lawal (2002) argued a reform in teaching methods to incorporate case studies, real-life projects, group work and presentations and increased involvement by practitioners in teaching, in-depth research projects. This would arguably help management accounting research maintain its’ currency with practitioners. New managements accounting researches, proposals and methods are criticised by practitioners often highlighting various inadequacies and limitations. Thus, many new proposals are discarded questioning whether management accounting research is maintaining its currency with practitioners. When evaluating new systems, practitioners often fail to refer to academic research findings on the potential obstacles and/or effectiveness. It is questionable as to whether management accounting research has been successful considering its little practical impact. This is vastly to do with the training and education which has excluded modern researches. Arguably, there have been poor mechanisms and incentives for turning research findings into suitable techniques and policies as well as incorporating such findings into teaching programmes as the roles and skills of management accountant’s change. Observations have found that professional accounting courses including many bodies emphasise on facts and methods abandoning fundamental theory and new research. Consequently, practitioners are sceptical of research having unrealistic expectations attempting to find quick and easy explanations/solutions to difficult problems. Practitioners do not obtain sufficient research skills from professional training. Burns et al (2004) founded that academics and practicing management accountants have different career paths obstructing shared interaction as well as understanding. Academics progression is based on research accomplishments as supposed to professional involvements. Thus, academics place less emphasis on practitioner focussed research considering the little benefit to them. The issues relating to management accounting research maintaining its currency with practitioners lie in the communication. A method needs to be adopted whereby the two are closely interrelated. The research by Burns et al (2004) has helped provide an insight into the changing roles and skills required of management accountants as well as the changes that have occurred in management accounting research. Such research by Burns et al is vital in understanding the reasons for changes in practitioner roles as well as requirements in order for management accounting research to maintain its currency with the practitioners. Arguably, research has kept up with times to accommodate changing requirements of management accountants. However, its application in practice is questionable and whether management accounting research is actually maintaining it’s currency with practitioners. Thus, methods should be adopted whereby research is accompanied with supporting evidence involving tried and tested methods. Suitable mechanisms and incentives for turning research findings into suitable techniques and policies should be developed and incorporated into teaching programmes. Management accountants are part of professional bodies that can incorporate new developments to the area in teaching. Professional bodies often release publications and this method should be used to communicate new management accounting research theories and findings that can be successful in practice. New management accounting research and theories are available on the internet but it is questionable whether such findings are actually used. Thus, practitioners should be encouraged to read upon new publications of management accounting research. Considering research is constantly developing with roles of management accountants changing, there should be increased publications by professional bodies for members in order for research to maintain its currency with practitioners. Management accounting research is crucial to the healthy development of management accounting and maintaining its’ currency with practitioners. How to cite Management Accounting Research, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Philippines a Laggard of Tourism and Aviation in Southeast Asia Essay Example

Philippines: a Laggard of Tourism and Aviation in Southeast Asia? Essay The Philippines has been known as a hub of Southeast Asia up until the mid-1960s. With Philippine Airlines as the country’s major flag carrier, many countries and airlines wanted to be like the Philippines. Unfortunately, some events led to the downfall of the tourism and aviation of the country thus leading to the country’s current situation: a laggard in tourism and aviation. Before the start of this paper, definition of terms would be provided for hub, laggard, tourism and aviation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration defines hub as an airlines base of operations. An airlines hub is at an airport that houses a large number of its aircraft each night and is the origin of a large number of the airlines connecting flights. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2011) The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines laggard as those who are last to adopt a new product or service. (The Chartered Institute of Marketing, 2011) The United Nations World Tourism Organization defines tourism as the activities of people travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. (United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2011) NASA also defines aviation as the operation of heavier-than-air aircraft also considered to be the design, development and manufacture of aircraft. There are three types of aviation: general, commercial and military. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2011) The Philippine Airlines, known before as Philippine Airways, Inc. , started its operation on February 26, 1941 with a starting capital of Php 500,000. It was established through the joint efforts of Juan M. Elizalde, Andres Soriano, Former Senator Ramon Fernandez, Schultz and Ernestto von Kauffmann. The airlines competed with Iloiloi-Negros Air Express Co. , Inc. (INAEC) with its Beech Model 18 NPC-54 from Manila to Baguio and from Baguio to Manila. Through the help of the government, PAL increased its capital to Php 1,000,000. We will write a custom essay sample on Philippines: a Laggard of Tourism and Aviation in Southeast Asia? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Philippines: a Laggard of Tourism and Aviation in Southeast Asia? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Philippines: a Laggard of Tourism and Aviation in Southeast Asia? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Alongside with that, the government became the largest stockholder of the company with thirty-four (34) percent of shares. By July 31, 1946, PAL became the first Asian airline which operated across the Pacific through the use of a Douglas DC-4 from Trans-Ocean Airline to fly between Manila and Oakland that took 41 hours to complete. After that milestone, continuous increases in the capital of the company have occurred. PAL bought more aircrafts and more destinations like Europe have been added to their list of services. PAL became the first Asian airline to operate to Europe and so more and more airlines in the Southeast Asian region look up to PAL. But amidst all of the achievements made by PAL, the country still lagged behind other Asian countries. Foreign countries like the US and Germany establish airlines in other Asian countries which offer better services compared to PAL. PAL, being the first Asian airline and got nothing to base its ideas from, hired its own staff, cabin attendants, service personnel, maintenance staff and other needed people to make the airline operate as smooth as possible. Many of the money that should be used to make their services and aircrafts better went to the training of their staff and to their salaries. From that, foreign airlines learned how to utilize their resources. They opted to outsource some of their employees therefore using less amount of money for training and such. A couple of problems have shaken the state of PAL and the country and tested its strength. Things like the suspension of PAL’s international operations due to economic issues, the continuous accidents involving the aircrafts of PAL in a single year, the Martial Law, the assassination of Benigno â€Å"Ninoy† Aquino, Jr. the numerous coup d’etats during the term of former President Corazon Aquino, competitions with other emerging airlines, a number of strikes among PAL employees and others have affected the services of PAL and the tourism state of the country. Foreigners became scared, if not more careful, about going to the country. With the politics-re lated issues that occurred in the country, more and more people tend to visit other countries which are in the Southeast Asian region as well. The economy seemed to be a problem as well. Problems like the Asian Financial Crisis and the weakening of the Peso compared to the Dollar affected the tourist arrivals in the country. Another thing that could be a factor as to which the Philippines remains to be a laggard in aviation is due to the fact that there are too many airlines in the country that instead of helping each other to make the country’s aviation better, chose to compete with each other. In addition to that, the continuous privatization and nationalization of PAL affected its operations and reputation due to the changes in the management and such. Since PAL couldn’t fire their other staffs, like the flight attendants, it could be concluded that somehow, that affects the â€Å"reputation† of PAL. Most, if not all, airlines commonly use younger flight attendants. If it would be compared to the older flight attendant of PAL which are assigned at the business class section of several flights, other airlines would really have more edge on this aspect. As for the tourism side of the issue, the country is truly blessed with abundant resources that could be considered as tourism assets. Tourism became an asset for the country. As a matter of fact, many Southeast Asian countries envy the country due to its assets and its economy. â€Å"Economically, the Philippines was the envy of other South East Asian countries. From 1950 until 1960, the average growth of the GDP was 6. 5 percent. In contrast, Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia only grew by 5. 6 percent, 4. 0 percent, and 3. 6 percent respectively. The following decade, the country still expanded at an average of 5. 1 percent. While decent, other countries began to catch up but we still held on to our lead. † (Philippine Online Chronicles, 2011) Unfortunately, events like the Martial Law and the rising international debts of the Philippines led to the slow downfall of the country. Up until now, the country couldn’t cope up with the challenges from the past. Numerous administrations have passed by but it could be seen that â€Å"every time the country would accelerate towards progress, it hits a brick wall†. (Philippine Online Chronicles, 2011) Quoting the words of DOT Secretary Jimenez, Somewhere in Thailand and Vietnam and Malaysia some people are very worried about what were about to do. They know we havent got the budget, can you figure out why (theyd be worried)? The answer can only be, the Filipinos have always beaten them with less. Always.   (ABS-CBN News, 2011) Among the factors that could be considered as to which the Philippines became a laggard in tourism are the low quality and number of airports, roads and other infrastructure. Infrastructures that are fully developed are often found in the urban areas of the country. Unfortunately, most of the â€Å"hidden† tourist destinations are found in the rural areas of the country and the roads that tourist should undergo are not that good. Most of the world-class tourism destinations of the country are located outside Metro Manila. We need to facilitate the travel of tourists from their point of origin to the final tourism destinations and thus there is a need to improve the tourist facilities in the major airports of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, Cerilles said. (House of Representatives, 2011) To start these improvements, the government must see to it that the airports of the country are fully equipped and must be presentable to the tourists since the airports are the gateways to the country. A not good looking airport could make tourists stop visiting the country because these airports give the tourists a bad first impression for the country. As of the moment, there are no Philippine carriers which have a direct to the Middle East and Europe and if ever that PAL could restore its services there or if other airlines in the country would try to take a risk at servicing in those areas, it could be a big help for the country. Promotion is also a big help for the country. If the government and the citizens of the country would help each other in promoting the different tourist attractions in the country, chances would be that the tourist arrivals in the country would increase. As other people may say, word of mouth is a good tool in promoting. A good slogan or tagline for the country would help the country as well. It must show what the country could offer to the tourists not just from other countries, but tourists that live in the Philippines as well. To sum everything up, the country has lots of potentials to grow and to become more successful in both aviation and tourism. It’s just a matter of proper allocation of attention and support not just from the government but from the citizens of the country as well. If the public and the private sector would work together, then the country could go a very long way. People must set aside their own motives and help in making the country more popular especially tourism wise since tourism could generate a lot of jobs thus satisfying the need of the public sector as well as the private sector. The country is blessed with numerous assets. It’s not just the natural resources but the people living in here as well could be considered as assets so Filipinos should stand up and make a move in bringing the Philippines back to the top. Bibliography: CIM Definition of Laggard. The Chartered Institute of Marketing Website. http://www. cim. co. uk/resources/glossary/home. aspx, 09 September 2011. From Leader to Laggard: Effects of Martial Law on PHL Economy. Philippine Online Chronicles Website. http://www. thepoc. net/thepoc-features/mukhang-pera/mukhang- pera-features/11258-from-leader-to-laggard. html, 25 September 2011. Greater Liberalization of RP Commercial Aviation Eyed. House of Representatives Website. http://www. congress. gov. ph/press/details. php? pressid=2585, 25 September 2011. Milestones in the History of PAL. ttp://www. philippineairlines. com/about_pal/milestones/ milestones. jsp, 20 September 2011. NASA Definition of Aviation. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Website. http://quest. arc. nasa. gov/aero/virtual/demo/glossary/A. html, 09 September 2011. NASA Definition of Hub. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Website. http://quest. arc. nasa. gov/aero/virtual/demo/glossary/H. html, 09 Septe mber 2011. Philippine Airlines Info Kit: 1981. (1981). Manila: Philippine Airlines. Philippines to Launch Upbeat Tourism Campaign. Intellasia Interactive Website. ttp://www. intelasia. net/news/articles/philippines/111339289_printer. shtml, 25 September 2011. Santos, E. B. (1981). Trails in Philippine Skies: A History of Aviation in the Philippines from 1909 to 1941. Manila: Philippine Airlines. WTO Definition of Tourism. Link BC Website. http://www. linkbc. ca/torc/downs1/WTOdefinitio ntourism. pdf, 09 September 2011. Zapanta, A. L. (2005). 100 Years of Philippine Aviation 1909-2009: A Focus on Airline Management. Taytay, Rizal: ALZ Publishing. Rachelle Eunice D. Belaro 2009-29481 T168 WFY Dr. Avelino DL Zapanta

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Doctrine of Vicarious Liability

Doctrine of Vicarious Liability Abstract The doctrine of vicarious liability refers to a situation where a person is held responsible for actions of another individual based on the relationship that exists between the two. The doctrine has a number of legal and ethical justifications, but some are outdated and not applicable in the present world.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Doctrine of Vicarious Liability specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay establishes some of the assumptions in the doctrine including that the employer is the richest in the employer-employee relationship, and hence responsible for any torts committed by the former. The doctrine has a number of modern day applications with some of the elements being rendered redundant. This paper concludes that the doctrine is an unavoidable one in the current century, as it has led to a number of positive changes. Introduction Vicarious responsibility is a doctrine of common la w that has been in existence for a number of centuries. Vicarious responsibility refers to a situation whereby an employer is held legally responsible for the actions of his/her employees. The employee is deemed to have committed an offence and in effect, the organization or employer under whom s/he works is held responsible. Some prominent features of the doctrine are central to its existence, which include that there has to be a tort committed against the plaintiff and at the time that the tort is committed, the employee is under the said employer or supervisor (Neyers, 2005, p. 3). Some of the other features include that an employee may also be held responsible for the tort together with the employer. Vicarious responsibility has a number of implications both legal and institutional, and these aspects have attracted a number of legal and ethical justifications. The doctrine has also undergone a series of changes over the last number of years (Giliker, 2010). Therefore, it is appl ied differently in the modern world. In this research paper, an introduction to the doctrine of vicarious responsibility is made with a focus on the ethical and legal implications under deliberation. The paper also establishes some of the applications of the doctrine in the modern world.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The existence of vicarious responsibility occurs between an employee and an employer, and as Neyers (2005) states, the theory of vicarious responsibility does not apply between employers and their independent contractors, parents, children, or the shareholders. The application of the theory is also not in the relationship that exists between a parent and his/her child or that between supervisors and those beneath them. The doctrine only applies for the employer for the torts committed only by the legal employees. Some of the reasons for the existence of the doctrine of vicarious responsibility include the assumption that the employer controls the actions of the employees, and thus s/he should be held responsible (Neyers, 2005). Some critics have tried to argue against the application of vicarious liability based on the presumption that the employer determines what the workers do in the course of their duties. Some of the arguments against this doctrine include that the control over an employee is not sufficient reason to apply vicarious liability since other relationships have no such implications. Some have even gone ahead and faulted the doctrine with the example of a schoolteacher and her/his pupils or a parent and his/her children, with the conclusion that control is not a good explanation of vicarious liability in the employer-employee relationship (Neyers, 2005). Ethical and Legal Justifications There are a number of ethical and legal justifications and implications of vicarious liability between an employer and their employe e. Some of the ethical issues in vicarious responsibility include the bearing of punishment for an employer for the torts that are unrelated to them. In most cases of vicarious liability, the employer is unaware of any misconduct by the employee, and there may not be any mistake committed. Some of the other ethical issues lie in the main reason for the existence of vicarious liability. Most plaintiffs sue employers with the basic assumption that they are richer than the employees are, and thus they could afford the charges that are likely to be imposed on them (Giliker, 2010). This assumption means that the reason that the plaintiffs sue the employers is for financial gains as opposed to seeking justice.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Doctrine of Vicarious Liability specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The assumption is that the actions of the employee are within the control of the employer and that they are d irectly responsible (Giliker, 2002). One of the ethical issues that arise with this premise is the nature of the assumption. Employees often have intentional torts that their employers are made responsible for, which is unethical. In most cases, employers have paid fines for actions of their employees that were committed in bad faith. These actions are not necessarily within the responsibility of the employer, and they cost businesses and organizations large amounts of money in fines. The cases also degrade the reputations of the involved parties, which may need a lot of time and money to win back. Despite the above issues, some ethical justifications to the existence of vicarious responsibility exist. One is that employers are held responsible for the actions of their employees, and this aspect in turn makes them hold the employees in close supervision. This assertion implies that employees have to work with certain standards, thus ensuring that the quality of services rendered to clients is appropriate. Another form of ethical justification for the vicarious responsibility is that it allows taking of responsibility for employers, thus preventing legal issues with their employees and clients (Giliker, 2002). Another justification for vicarious liability is that it reduces the number of accidents in the workplace, with the employers having to put in place measures to ensure that accidents do not take place. Some scholars have stated that the presence of vicarious responsibility is important in regulating some industries, with the most important of these being the service industry (Giliker, 2010). Employees get warnings on any unethical behaviour and are served with terms of employment, and organizations in which they work has to put in place punitive measures to ensure that employees respect these regulations. In the health industry, for example, medical practitioners have to ensure that the employees under them respect the ethical code of conduct to avoid any legal implications in the case of negligence.Advertising Looking for research paper on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vicarious liability has also enabled the reduction of negligence in workplaces, with employers having to reduce the number of incidents that happen under their watch. The implication here is that employers have to abide strictly to the set industry rules, embark on the regular training of their employees, and choose those that are competent in the line of duty. These measures have ensured efficiency in the concerned industries in addition to preventing any legal implications in terms of vicarious liability. Some of the legal justifications of the vicarious liability include the generation of laws that are used in the processing of various legal cases related to the running of organizations. Over the past few years, there have been a number of high profile cases involving vicarious liability, which have affected the outcomes of cases that followed and their judgments. These rulings have been important in the formulation of policy in the respective industries, thus making the working environment much safer and efficient. Employers are held responsible for the actions of the employees since they are required to train them on the basic requirements before they join the job market. Another legal justification is that the law has to hold institutions responsible Application in the modern world Vicarious liability has a number of applications in the modern world, which have not changed for several decades. As Mclvor (2006) states, the determination of when a tort has been committed is one of the major functions of industrial courts. Therefore, the doctrine of vicarious liability ensures that there is taking of responsibility in the industrial courts, thus making it easier to identify the aggrieved parties and those to pay for the damages. Another application of vicarious liability is the maintenance of law and order in different sectors. Since employers are aware of the consequences of vicarious liability, they train their employees on how to avoid it through adequat e training, selection, and provision of the basic minimum working conditions. For employees, vicarious liability is not as safe for them as perceived. Most employees are warned of any vicarious liability that organizations may encounter in their hands, which means that they have to use caution in their interaction with clients. This move has led to improved service delivery with companies producing a better output compared to earlier years (McIvor, 2006). Companies keep track of the performance of the companies through the mechanisms that have been set in place to avoid cases arising from vicarious responsibility. The doctrine has also a number of applications in the modern courtroom with the legal system respecting its existence. A number of rulings on the same have also ensured that the parties are given a fair ruling. These rulings have been a landmark with the outcomes being used as a basis for the next rulings. One of the principles of the existence of vicarious liability is th e assumption that the employer is rich, and thus can cater for the charges that are awarded against the organizations. This aspect has acted as deterrence for employees and employers, thus preventing some of the torts that were common before the introduction of the principle (Giliker, 2010). Another way in which the doctrine is applied today includes the guaranteeing of responsibility where torts are committed in an organization by people who may not be necessarily known. Before the introduction of the doctrine, organizations could hide in the ability of the afflicted parties to establish employees that were responsible for the torts committed. Therefore, it would be difficult to establish the right culprits or punishment. With the introduction of vicarious liability, clients can single out the organizations that were involved and this aspect has created responsible organizations (Giliker, 2002). Another way in which vicarious liability is important in organizational management is t he creation of working relationship between the employee and the employer. Employers have integrated themselves in the daily lives of the employees by ensuring that they have an enabling working environment and are in a position to deliver. The above measures mean that the employer-employee relationship has improved over the last few years, with a portion of the success being attributable to the doctrine. However, some of the modern applications of the ethical and legal justifications of vicarious liability are not applicable in the present world. The assumption that the employer is the richest party in cases against clients may not be applicable, as some organizations are not as wealthy as the clients in the tort may purport them to be. Some may even be bankrupt and unable to afford the required fines. The assumption has also led to the emergence of a new type of clients that engage in vicarious liability to benefit financially. Therefore, they set out to make employees commit cert ain torts out of will to achieve their motives of compensation. Over the years, there have been a number of court cases where the plaintiff was involved in the committing of a crime to benefit financially without any damages being found. Organizations have lost valuable money to these kinds of tricksters and some have ended up being sued by the organizations for defamation. In some of the instances, the decision is reversed where the employer is found to have no responsibility in the committing of the tort, especially where the mandate of the employee was not within the limits of the organization. Another way in which the legal and ethical justification for the vicarious liability applies is the manner in which organizations can raise money and declare their wealth. Over the past decades, organizations could hold a large number of assets and finances without the knowledge of the public (Giliker, 2010). With the introduction of vicarious liability, many organizations are cautious to announce and publish their financial resources. This element works as a tactic for discouraging any of the clients who may be interested in making claims based on vicarious liability. Some of the other applications of vicarious liability include the definition of roles in organizations. In the current organizational structure, employees have specifically defined roles, which they are required to play in the companies, and these form the avenues within which vicarious liability is applicable. Therefore, employers have ensured that the roles of employees are specially defined to avoid litigations or any other legal implications as applied in vicarious liability (Grubb, 2004). The application of vicarious liability is not new in organizations and for centuries, there has been an existence of a contract between the employee and the employer where the employer is held responsible for the actions of the employees. However, the doctrine has been adopted in the legal system, allowing the ob served changes. Conclusion Vicarious liability has a number of applications in cases whereby an individual is made responsible for the crimes committed by another. The doctrine has mainly been applicable in organizations with over a century in the legal system. The origin is not clear to many researchers, but the doctrine serves to ensure the bearing of responsibility for actions committed within the organizational ranks. The existence of the doctrine draws a number of ethical and legal justifications, and they include the desire to have people take responsibility for the actions of their subordinates in organizations. The legal justifications underscore the view that the employees’ actions are directly linked to employers, and that the two are equally responsible. However, presumably, the employer is the richer of the two, and thus can afford to pay for the fines and the areas of the torts in a court of law. Some of the modern applications of the doctrine have been described in the essay, and the most evident result is the improvement in service delivery in organizations. References Giliker, P. (2002). Rough Justice in an Unjust World. Modern Law Review, 65(3), 269-271. Giliker, P. (2010). Vicarious liability in tort: A comparative perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Grubb, A. (2004). Principles of Medical Law. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. McIvor, C. (2006).The use and abuse of the doctrine of vicarious liability. Common Law World Review, 4(2), 268-296. Neyers, J. (2005). A theory of vicarious liability. Alberta Law Review, 43(2), 1-41.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Edwin H. Colbert - Profile of the Famous Paleontologist

Edwin H. Colbert - Profile of the Famous Paleontologist Name: Edwin H. Colbert Born/Died: 1905-2001 Nationality: American Dinosaurs Discovered: Scutellosaurus, Staurikosaurus, Effigia, Lystrosaurus, Coelophysis About Edwin H. Colbert During his long life, Edwin H. Colbert made his share of major fossil discoveries; he was in charge of the team that unearthed a dozen Coelophysis skeletons at Ghost Ranch, New Mexico, in 1947, and he also named Staurikosaurus, one of the earliest known dinosaurs of the late Triassic period. For 40 years, Colbert was a curator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, where his mentor was the distinguished fossil hunter Henry Fairfield Osborn, and he wrote a series of popular books (including 1945s seminal The Dinosaur Book: The Ruling Reptiles and Their Relatives) that helped introduce baby-boomer kids to paleontology. When he was already past 60, Colbert accepted a post as curator of vertebrate paleontology at the Museum of Northern Arizona. Today, aside from Coelophysis, Colbert is best known for his 1969 discovery of the skeleton of an early therapsid, or mammal-like reptile, Lystrosaurus, in Antarctica. Before Colberts expedition, various Lystrosaurus fossils had been unearthed in South Africa, and paleontologists had come to the conclusion that this creature couldnt possibly have been a good swimmer. Colberts discovery proved that Antarctica and South Africa had once been joined in a single southern continent, Gondwana, thus lending support to the theory of continental drift (that is, that the earth’s continents have slowly been joining, separating, and moving around over the last 500 million years or so).

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Beats By Dre Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Beats By Dre - Essay Example Due to the entry of new players into the market, the level of competition is believed to be on the rise, as manufacturers adopt more aggressive and market cantered marketing approaches to reach out to new customers (Breen, 2014). Beats by Dre is a headphone manufacturing line in the united states that has gained significant prominence due to the promotion and celebrity endorsements that it has acquired in the past. The company own the consumer can access significant patent for audio technologies and some of the music from online music stores. However, as a strategy to reach out to new customers and increase influence in the market, the company has collaborated with a number of companies including HTC and Chrysler (Doyle 2011). In 2014, Apple Inc. acquired the company through a cash and stock deal worth more than $3 billion, one of the largest company acquisitions ever witnessed in the headphone industry. In this report, beats by Dre will be discussed in light of its competitive market strategies and how it performed in the face of emerging small businesses. Porter five force analyses and Ansoff growth matrix will be used to evaluate the performance and prospects for the company (Johnston, 2012). The headphone industry has emerged as one of the most attractive sectors in 2014 due to the emerging interests from music producers, mobile phone companies among others. Though the industry is still emerging from low market recognition, the reputation it has gained in the market demonstrates its great potential and future prospects. A number of small companies have entered the market and they continue to rise above the stiff competition (Akoth, 2014). One such company is beats by Dre, a headphone company that was founded in 2006 by Dry Dre, an American musician. Through a well-coordinated market campaign and market sensitization programs, the company acquired dominance and respect in the industry. This attracted major